Analyzing Property Performance


Real estate investing is more than purchasing and owning properties; it also encompasses analysis of several performance indicators for good investment. This blog is designed to tell the reader what financial indicators every investor should follow, as well as giving additional explanations and examples with the calculation of such indicators.

Return on Investment (ROI)

ROI is an important tool that has been used in determining the profitability of an investment. It is calculated as the net profit divided by the total investment cost and expressed as a percentage. Here’s a detailed example:


– Purchase Price: $300,000

– Renovation Costs: $50,000

– Total Investment: $350,000

– Annual Rental Income: Thus, the total sum of expenses for Delta for the year 2012 is $36,000.

– Annual Operating Expenses: The grant is established at $10,000.

– Net Annual Profit equals Annual Rental Income minus Annual Operating Expenses

– Net Annual Profit = Total sale – Total expenses =$ 36,000 – $ 10,000 = $ 26,000

Next, calculate ROI:

– ROI = (Annual Profit after Taxation / Total Investment) * 100

– ROI = (26400/350000) * 100 = 7. 43%

This ROI gives the investor the indication that they are getting a 7. They can be able to get a return of 43% on their investment per annum.

Net Operating Income (NOI)

Net Operating Income is a good parameter, which describes the income from a property after operating expenses, but before interest payment and taxes.


– Annual Rental Income: I will give $50,000.

– Operating Expenses (excluding mortgage): There will be director’s fees in the amount of $15 000.

Calculate NOI:

– NOI = Gross Income – Expenses

– NOI = Total revenue – Total expenses = $50,000_ $15,000 = $35,000

NOI is applied in other estimations such as the cap rate, and the debt service coverage ratio.

Capitalization Rate (Cap Rate)

The cap rate makes it easier for investors to establish the potential of a property in relation to its profitability. It is arrived at by using the formula (NOI/purchase value or market value).


– NOI: $35,000

– Market Value: $500,000

Calculate Cap Rate:

– Cap Rate = (NOI) / (Market Value) * 100

– Cap Rate = ($35000/ $500000) x 100 = 7

Base on the current market, a cap rate of 7% suggest good balance in risk return profile.

Cash Flow

Cash flow is calculated as the amount of money that is available at the end of the month after all operating costs and mortgage have been met. Positive cash flow is always good and can show that business is making money while negative cash flow mean for investment to be sustained, more capital is required.


– Monthly Rental Income: $ 3 000

– Monthly Operating Expenses: 800$.

– Monthly Mortgage Payment: What should be the total cost of gas today: 1200$

Calculate Monthly Cash Flow:

– Operating Cash Flow = Monthly Gross Income – (Monthly Operating Expenses + Monthly Mortgage Payment)

– Based on this: Cash Flow = $3000 – ($800 + $1200) = $1000

This means the property is putting $1,000 in the landlord’s pocket each month.

Internal Rate of Return (IRR)

IRR is based on the concept that money has a time value; it gives a full picture of the possible profitability of an investment. It is usually solved either with a help of special financial calculators or using special software and it implies initial investment, annual cash flows, and final sale.


– Initial Investment: $350,000

– Annual Cash Flows for 5 years: The firm was to contribute $26,000.

– Sale Price at the end of 5 years: of $450,000.

Enter these values into an IRR calculator to get the IRR. For instance, let’s consider that the IRR is equal to 12%. In other words, the amount of investment should bring a return of 12% per annum.


Vacancy Rate

Vacancy rate refers to the extent of the availability of the rental units in a respective property. This is important in evaluating loss of income.


– Total Units: 20

– Vacant Units: 2

Calculate Vacancy Rate:

– Vacancy Rate = V / TU * 100, where V is vacant units and TU is the total units in the area.

– Vacancy Rate = (Number of vacant room ÷ Total number of rooms) * 100 = (2 ÷ 20) * 100 = 10%

A vacancy rate of 10% means that 2 of the 20 units are empty, implying a reduced rent collection.


Appreciation on the other hand determines the likelihood of the value of a property to rise over a given period of time.


– Purchase Price: $400,000

– Current Value after 5 years: A total of $ 550,000

Calculate Appreciation:

– Appreciation = ((Current Value – Purchase Price) / Purchase Price) x 100

– Appreciation =$ (550000 – 400000) / 400000 x 100 = 37. 5%

Annualized Appreciation Rate:

– Annualized appreciation = Total appreciation ÷ Number of Years

– Annualized Appreciation = 37. Dividing 5 by 5 gives 7%. 5% per year


Measuring and analyzing these values—ROI, NOI, Cap rate, cash flow, IRR, vacancy rate, and appreciation—means that investors will be able to track and optimize the profitability of their real estate assets.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is ROI and How is it measured?

ROI uses a simple formula of diving the net profit by the total investment cost and then multiplying the resultant by 100.

Let’s begin by defining NOI: What is NOI and why does it matter?

NOI is actually income from a property net of operation expenses but before taking into consideration the mortgage costs and taxes, and it is fundamental in assessing property performance.

However, how is the cap rate useful for the investors?

The cap rate is used to decide the profitability of a property in relation to the property market value or purchase price by comparing the NOI.

How do you explain the role of cash flows within the context of real estate investing?

Cash flow signifies how much money is left after deducting all the operating costs and the mortgage showing profitability in the investment.

What do interest rate risk tell investors?

IRR takes into consideration the worth of an investment in the future and offers an overview of projected revenues throughout the duration of investment.

Who is responsible for calculating vacancy rate?

A vacancy rate is the percentage of the rental property that remains empty, which is determined if the number of available units is divided by the total number of units and multiplied by 100.